History of mathematics
Number theory:
Algebra:
Babylonians use simultaneous linear equations and early matrices
Chinese 200-100BC 1st to use matrices & use Gaussian elimination which would not become well known in the West until the early 19^{th} Century!
ALGEBRA comes from the title of a work written in Arabic c 825 by al-Khowarizmi, al-jabr w'al-muqâbalah, in which al-jabr means "the reunion of broken parts." When this was translated from Arabic into Latin four centuries later, the title emerged as Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque.
Geometry:
Probability:
Calculus: