- genocide is the intention to exterminate an
ethnic, national or religious group of people who are targeted as such,
- killing members of the group
- causing serious bodily or mental harm of the group
- deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to
bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
- imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
- forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
- Stanton's 8 stages of genocide:
- classification - the creation of groups of people
- symbolisation - creation of symbols or names for the group of
- dehumanisation - one group denies the humanity of another
group, equating it with animals, vermin, etc which serves to overcome
the normal human revulsion against murder.
- organisation - genocide is always organised, whether by the
state or by terrorist groups. Special army units or militias are often
trained & armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
- polarisation - extremists drive the groups apart, hate groups
broadcast polarising propaganda, laws may forbid intermarriage or social
interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating &
silencing the center.
- preparation - victims are identified & separated out. Death
lists are drawn up. Members f victim groups may be forced to wear
identifying symbols. They are often segregated into ghettos, forced into
concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.
- extermination - it is extermination to the killers because they
do not believe their victims to be fully human. Sometimes the genocide
results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating a
vicious cycle of bilateral genocide.
- denial - always follows genocide & is one of the
surest indicators of further genocidal massacres.
History of genocide
or genocide-like events:
- 1994: Rwandan Hutu extremists massacre some 800,000 Tutsis and
moderate Hutus in civil war
- 1992-5: Yugoslav genocide of 8,000 Bosnian muslims by the Serbs,
led by Slobodan Milosevic
- 1988: Iraq's Anfal campaign against the Kurds
- 1982: Guatemala govt backed by the US, brutal campaign against the Mayan
- 1975 onwards: Laos: Communist Laos govt has killed 300,000 people
of Laos since 1975 and it continues.
- 1975-9: Cambodian genocide by Pol Pots regime kills 1.7 million -
20% of the population.
- 1971: Hindu Bengali massacre by West Pakistani military regime aimed to
kill millions of Bengali men and upper classes in Bangladesh.
- 1966: Rumania: Ceausescu's persection of the minority Hungarians in
- 1940's the Burmese railway:
- Japanese allow 90,000 indentured Asian labourers (mainly Malaysian
Tamils and Burmese) to die as well as many thousands of POW's
whilst building the Burmese railway
- 1940's the Holocaust:
- Hitler's Nazi's killed millions of Jews, Gypsies (1.5m or 70-80% of
Romani population killed), Serbians, and the incapacitated.
- the returning Rumanian army's extermination of 100,000 of the minority
Hungarians in Northern Transylvania in 1944
- see also:
- 1940: Germany: The first mass genocidal action of the Holocaust takes place in January
of this year, when 250 Romani children are used as guinea pigs to test the cyanide gas
crystal, at the concentration camp at Buchenwald. Employment of any kind is forbidden to
Gypsies in this same year.
- 1939: Germany: Nazi party decree states that "the aim of the measures taken by the
state must be the racial separation once and for all of the Gypsy race from the German
nation, then the prevention of racial mixing." The Office of Racial Hygiene issues a
statement saying "All Gypsies should be treated as hereditarily sick; the only
solution is elimination. The aim should therefore be the elimination without hesitation of
this defective element in the population."
- 1934: Germany: Gypsies are selected for sterilization by
injection and castration, and sent to camps at Dachau, Dieselstrasse, Sachsenhausen
and elsewhere. Two laws issued in this year forbid Germans from marrying "Jews,
Gypsies and Negroes."
- Ukraine: Stalin's starvation of the Ukraine peasants killed
- Germany: Nazis introduce a law to legalize eugenic sterilization. This is
specifically named as written to control "Gypsies and most of the Germans of black
color," these latter the descendants of the unions between African soldiers and
Europeans from the period of the 1914-1918 War.
- 1927: In Bavaria, special camps are built to incarcerate Gypsies. Eight
thousand Gypsies are processed in this way.
- 1922: All Gypsies in German territories are to be
photographed and fingerprinted.
- 1920: Germans, Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche, introduce the notion of "lives
unworthy of life," suggesting that Gypsies should be sterilized and eliminated as a
people. This notion, with the same name, is incorporated into Nazi race theory in 1933.
- 1915: Armenian or Hellenic/Pontian genocide:
- Turkish government under extremist "Young Turks" Enver,
Jemal & Talat under cover of WWI decided to solve the
Christian Armenian/Assyrian problem. Hundreds of Armenian leaders in
Instabul were executed then they arranged for the remaining Armenian
people to be "relocated" in a death march to the Syrian Desert
where the survivors of the march were in the main killed on arrival. 1.5
million were killed between 1915 and 1922.
- 1909: A German policy conference on "The Gypsy Question" is held, and the
recommendation made that all Gypsies be branded with easy identification.
- 1904: Namibia: German army exterminates the Herero, killing 65,000 of the
80,000 by driving them into the desert and poisoning the few waterholes
- 1890's: Armenian genocide:
- Ottoman Empire under Sultan Abdul Hamid II, orders pogroms which
killed hundreds of thousands of Armenians.
- 1890: Conference organized in Germany on the Zigeunergeschmeiss
("Gypsy scum"). Military empowered to regulate movements of
- early 19thC: British invaders of Australia persecute the Australian Aborigines,
which combined with introduced disease & competition for food, almost
wipes out the indigenous peoples.
- American massacre of indigenous Indians using forced removal, forced
assimilation, military slaughter, bounties, biological warfare such as
offering blankets intentionally contaminated with smallpox, killing over
100,000, and later forced sterilisation The indigenous population of over 12
million prior to Columbus, was reduced by 95% to 237,000 400yrs later.
- 1493: Columbus commences the enslavement and mass
extermination of the Taino population of the Carribean resulting in 5
million dead within 3 years. The Spanish colonists used various methods
including hangings en masse, roasting them on spits, hacking children to
pieces and feeding them to dogs.
- In their own recorded history - the Pentatuch (or first five books of
the Bible) - the Jews admit to the first recorded genocide perpetrated
upon the Girgamesses, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites,
and Jebusites by themselves in fulfillment of the covenant they hold
with their God.
- Deuteronomy 7:1-2: "... the seven nations greater and mightier
than thou; And when the LORD thy God shall deliver them before thee;
thou shalt smite them, and utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no
covenant with them, nor shew mercy unto them."
- Joshua 6:21: "And they utterly destroyed all that was in the
city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass,
with the edge of the sword."
- Joshua 10:40-41: "So Joshua smote all the country of the hills,
and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their
kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed,
as the LORD God of Israel commanded. And Joshua smote them from
Kadesh-barnea even unto Gaza, and all the country of Goshen, even unto