History of Medieval Era of Music
4. Hypophrygian: finalis on E, tenor on A
6. Hypolydian: finalis on F, tenor on A
8. Hypomixolydian: finalis on G, tenor on C
Robin loves me
The choice of wording is somewhat unfortunate. Yes, it is true that the inconsistencies and uncertainties in notation may and could lead to problems among musicians/performers. But, did these musicians, back in the 11th-13th centuries, really mind about these 'inconsistencies'. Put as it is and explained as "chaos," the message of the Grout/Palisca sentence is that the written tradition, i.e. notation, was the ultimate proof of legitimacy and correctness. The authors are ignoring the fact that many musics in the world, including European medieval music, were and still are strongly based on oral tradition. Also, it may as well have been 'chaos' the medieval musicians were looking for, not the uniformity of voices as it is represented to us today in modern score editions of early music.
Amour mi font / En mai / Flos filius eius
makes me wrongly suffer pain
because my lady, who has killed me,
does not deign while I am in misery
to comfort me.
And if I always served her very well
I certainly never lied to her.
That I am entirely at her mercy, I don't deny
and so I wish from now on to be in her good graces
and every day I clasp my hands and cry for pity
O Lord, that she grant me mercy.
mi font souffrir peine a tort
Car ma dame, qui m'a mort
Ne me daigne des maus, qu'ai por li
Et si l'ai toz jours mout bien servi
N'ainc certes ne li menti.
Ains sui toz a son voloir, ne l'en desdi,
Et ainsi voeil estre ades a son acort
Et toz dis a jointes mains li cri merci,
Pour Dieu, qu'ele le deignast avoir de mi.
|Motetus / Duplum||In May, when the rose blooms
and I hear the birds sing
I like by whatever means
to strive for joy.
This is it; I want to love.
I don't believe
that she yet knows
where my pains of love come from,
that will slay me.
Never in my life
have I known love's pleasure,
but if I don't have your help,
your love, your solace,
brunette without lover,
you will have killed me.
|En mai, quant
rose est florie
Que j'oi ces oisiaus chanter
Moi covient par druerie
C'est la fin, je vuoil amer
Et si ne croi mie
Qu'ele sache ja
Dont[t] vient li maus d'amer
Qu'onques en ma vie
D'amors n'ai deport
Mes se je n'ai vostre aie
Vostre amor, vostre confort
Brunete sans ami
Vos m'aves mort
|Tenor||Flos filius eius|
The Fourteenth Century Arts and Literature
The authors are offering another value judgment
in the above sentence. Instead of stating the fact about the new
use of new intervals in polyphonic music, those of the third and sixth,
for them it seems more important to state that these sounds are "milder."
They do not even make any comparison of a type "milder to what?"
They probably have in mind the earlier 'hollow' sounding intervals of the
parallel fifths, fourths and octaves of organum. Had they
put the word 'milder' under quotation marks, the reader would know that
the authors are not expressing their own value system but are rather quoting
from the value system of the period they are writing about and adhering
to the later development of the meanings implied in the concepts "consonance"
The next sentence of Grout and Palisca gives yet another opinion based on their own value system:
A new lyricism speaks through the finely wrought, flexible, melodic line in the solo voice with an accent of sincerity [emphasis mine] that imparts warmth even to the stylized language of chivalric verse (Grout and Palisca 1996:107).
In this sentence, the authors are clearly saying
that the "language of chivalric verse" is somehow not sincere in
comparison to the new 'language' of Machaut. The authors are not
telling us whose viewpoint and whose sensitivities are they expressing
here. Are they writing from the standpoint of the sensitivity of
our time or from the perspective of machaut or from some other angle?
Stated as it is, this sentence implies that the formal and highly stylized
chivalric poetry is somehow less warm and less emotional. It all
depends how one understands it. Certain artistic genres and forms
may be highly ritualized, formalized, ceremonial, stylized, yet with a
strong emotional impact and warmth. However, if a writer who describes
such genres and forms understands them as cold and as lacking in sincerity
and personal touch, then that writer should state that he or she is expressing
his/her own understanding and sensitivities, not universally understood
or agreed upon values.
These two quotes may help Chris in his discussion on the concepts of consonance, dissonance and tonality; Roger, in his discussion of the Battle of Agincourt; and Theresa, in her discussion on the concept of chivalry and how it was understood, constructed and maintained from the Middle Ages to the present.
|Music:||A B||A||A||A B||A B|
|a-b c||a b||a b||a-b c||a-b c|
|Color||Color I||Color II||Color I|
|Talea||2 Taleas||6 Taleas||2 Taleas|
Types of the 15th century Masses:
- Missa Choralis or Plainsong Mass
- each movement from the Ordinary would have a separate plainchant taken from the Graduale
- this was a liturgical and not a musical unity of the Mass
- Motto Missa
- beginnings of each movement would have the same melodic motive, 'motto', usually in the treble, which gave the Mass a partial musical unity
- Cantus Firmus Missa or Tenor Missa
- this type of the Mass had all movements with the same cantus firmus, i.e. same plainchant melody in the tenor
- since the tenor was the fundament of the 14th century motet, its plainchant melody was moving slowly in long-held notes
- the four-part structure
- Contratenor bassus -- in order to make the tenor melody more flexible and yet have a fundament, another voice, below the tenor, was added, called the contratenor bassus, and later simply bassus, today's bass
- Contratenor altus -- a voice above the tenor, also known as the altus
- Cantus or discantus or superious -- the highest voice
- Music Example -- Ballade & Missa (NRAWM CD2:13, 14-19 [CD1:25, 26-31])
- Se la face ay pale, "If my face is pale," by Guillaume Dufay
- Gloria from the Missa
- for this Mass, Dufay used the tenor melody of his ballade, Se la face ay pale, making it the cantus firmus
- the tenor is then heard or melodically and rhythmically recognizable in several movements of the Mass
- 'Rational Control' of Dissonaance and Consonance