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history:evolution [2020/07/07 18:23]
gary1 [Vertebrata]
history:evolution [2020/09/02 09:37] (current)
gary1 [mammals]
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         * all became extinct by the end of the Devonian         * all became extinct by the end of the Devonian
       *Placoderms (armoured fish) all became extinct by the of the Permian       *Placoderms (armoured fish) all became extinct by the of the Permian
-      *gnathostomes (jawed fish - evolved ability to convert nitrogen waste into **urea** which helped raise their blood osmolarity to that of sea water allowing migration to marine waters; development of the **sympathetic nervous system**)+      *gnathostomes (jawed fish - evolved ability to convert nitrogen waste into **urea** which helped raise their blood osmolarity to that of sea water allowing migration to marine waters; development of the **sympathetic nervous system**; development of vertebrate **dentition** c430mya;)
           *Chondrichthyes / Acanthodians (cartilaginous fish, no swim bladders or lungs; sharks, rays, skates and the extinct spiny sharks)           *Chondrichthyes / Acanthodians (cartilaginous fish, no swim bladders or lungs; sharks, rays, skates and the extinct spiny sharks)
           *Osteichthyes (c420mya common ancestor of **bony fish and developed a primitive air-breathing lung**)           *Osteichthyes (c420mya common ancestor of **bony fish and developed a primitive air-breathing lung**)
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                         * Testudeans (turtles)                         * Testudeans (turtles)
                       * Lepidosauria                       * Lepidosauria
-                          *sphenodon lizards (NZ)+                          *sphenodon lizards 250mya eg. tuatara (NZ)(([[https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2561-9]]))
                           *squamata / reptiles                           *squamata / reptiles
                             * lizards                             * lizards
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                                               * Neoaves (other modern birds)                                               * Neoaves (other modern birds)
                     * synapsids (earliest known is 318mya)                     * synapsids (earliest known is 318mya)
-                      * mammals (201-227mya; females have breasts which produce milk, brain has a neocortex, middle ear has 3 bones and skin has fur or hair) +                      * caseids 
-                        * see also: [[evolution_mammals]] +                      * eupelycosaurian synapsids 
-                        * monotremes c110mya (egg laying mammals)+                        * sphenacodontia 
 +                          * pantherapsida 
 +                            * sphenacodontoidea 
 +                              * therapsida 
 +                                * eutherapsida 
 +                                  * neotherapsida 
 +                                    * anomodontia 
 +                                      * lystrosaurus (250mya) able to hibernate (go into torpor) 
 +                                    * theriodontia 
 +                                      * eutheriodontia 
 +                                        * cynodontia 
 +                                          * **mammals** (201-227mya; females have breasts which produce milk, brain has a neocortex, middle ear has 3 bones and skin has fur or hair) 
 + 
 +=====mammals===== 
 +                    * mammals (201-227mya; females have breasts which produce milk, brain has a neocortex, middle ear has 3 bones and skin has fur or hair) 
 +                      * see also: [[evolution_mammals]] 
 +                        * **monotremes** c110mya (egg laying mammals)
                           * platypus                           * platypus
                           * echidna                           * echidna
-                        * theria (not egg laying, retrovirus enabled syncytins proteins which allowed placentae, and lost the coracoid bone) +                        * **theria** (not egg laying, retrovirus enabled syncytins proteins which allowed placentae, and lost the coracoid bone) 
-                          * eutherian mammals c161mya (amniotic sac surrounds the fetus, lack epipubic bones)+                          * **eutherian mammals** c161mya (amniotic sac surrounds the fetus, lack epipubic bones)
                             *atlantogenata (105mya)                             *atlantogenata (105mya)
                               * afrotheria: aardvarks, elephants, sea cows, dugongs                                * afrotheria: aardvarks, elephants, sea cows, dugongs 
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                                            *catarrhini (//Old World Monkeys//) - 40 mya                                            *catarrhini (//Old World Monkeys//) - 40 mya
                                              * see also [[ev_human]]                                              * see also [[ev_human]]
-                          * metatherians c125mya in Asia (give birth to relatively undeveloped young) +                          * **metatherians** c125mya in Asia (give birth to relatively undeveloped young) 
-                            * marsupials (?100mya in Utah) 65mya (young are carried in a pouch)+                            * **marsupials** (?100mya in Utah) 65mya (young are carried in a pouch)
                               * Laurasian possums => North America => South America (connected to Nth America until 65mya)                                * Laurasian possums => North America => South America (connected to Nth America until 65mya) 
                                 * Ameridelphia (American marsupials - oppossums)                                 * Ameridelphia (American marsupials - oppossums)
history/evolution.1594110223.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/07/07 18:23 by gary1