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history:evolution_plants

evolution of plants

current phylogeny based on genomes and transcriptomes

  • rhodophyta
  • glaucaphyta
  • viridiplantae
    • chlorophyta (chlorophyte green algae)
    • Prasinococcales
    • streptophyte algae grades
      • bryophytes
        • hornworts
        • liverworts
        • mosses
      • lycophytes
      • ferns
      • spermatophytes
        • gymnosperms (non-flowering seed-producing plants)
          • gymnosperms appear to have evolved 319mya as result of a whole genome duplication event
          • conifers
            • Araucariacieae
              • Wollemia
              • Agathis
              • Collumbea
              • Araucaria
            • Pinaceae
            • Podocarpaceae
            • Cupressaceae
            • Taxaceae
          • Boweniaceae
            • Bowenia
          • Cephalotaxaceae
            • Cephalotaxus
          • Cycadaceae
          • Ephedraceae
          • Ginkgoaceae
          • Gnetaceae
          • Taxodiaceae
          • Welwitschiaceae
          • Zamiaceae
          • angiosperms (flowering plants) c245mya
            • monocotyledons
            • dicotyledons
            • basal angiosperms
              • Amborella, a single species of shrub from New Caledonia;
              • Nymphaeales, about 80 species, water lilies and Hydatellaceae;
              • Austrobaileyales, about 100 species of woody plants from various parts of the world
            • Core angiosperms (Mesangiospermae)
              • Chloranthales, 77 known species of aromatic plants with toothed leaves;
              • Magnoliids, about 9,000 species eg. magnolia, bay laurel, tulip trees, black pepper
              • Monocots, about 70,000 species monocotyledons eg. grasses, orchids, palms
                • Acorales (c131mya)
                • Alismatales
                • lilioids
                  • Petrosaviales (c122mya)
                  • Dioscoreales (c115mya)
                  • Pandanales (c91mya)
                  • Liliales (c121mya)
                  • Asparagales (c120mya)
                    • Orchidaceae (orchids)
                      • Apostasioideae (2 genera, 15sp SW Asia)
                      • Vanilloideae (15 genera and 180 species, humid tropical and subtropical regions, eastern North America)
                      • Cypripedioideae (Lady Slipper orchids, 5 genera and 130 species)
                      • Epidendroideae (more than 500 genera and more or less 20,000 species)
                      • Orchidoideae (208 genera and 3,630 species)
                    • Boryaceae 12sp drought-tolerant plants Australia
                    • Hypoxidaceae
                      • Blandfordiaceae (Aust)
                      • Lanariaceae (Sth Africa)
                      • Asteliaceae
                      • Hypoxidaceae
                    • Ixioliriaceae
                    • Tecophilaeaceae
                    • Doryanthaceae
                    • Iridaceae (irises)
                    • Xeronemataceae
                    • Asphodelaceae
                    • 'core' Asparagales
                      • Amaryllidaceae s.l
                      • Asparagaceae s.l. (includes asparagus, agapanthus, allium, agaves and yuccas)
                • commelinids (c118mya)
                  • Arecales
                  • Poales
                  • Zingiberales
                  • Commelinales
              • Ceratophyllum, about 6 species of aquatic plants
              • Eudicots, about 175,000 species dicotyledons eg. sunflowers, petunia, buttercup, apples, and oaks
                • evolved early Cretaceous and includes most leafy trees of midlatitudes
                • basal eudicots
                  • Ranunculales
                  • Proteales
                  • Trochodendrales
                  • Buxales
                • core eudicots
                  • superrosids
                    • Saxifragales
                    • rosids
                      • fabids
                        • Fabales (legumes, acacia)
                        • Rosales (roses)
                        • Fagales (beeches)
                        • Cucurbitales
                        • Oxalidales
                        • Malpighiales
                        • Celastrales
                        • Zygophyllales
                      • malvids
                        • Geraniales
                        • Myrtales (myrtles, eucalyptus)
                        • Crossosomatales
                        • Picramniales
                        • Malvales
                        • Brassicales
                        • Huerteales
                        • Sapindales
                  • superasterids
                    • Santalales
                    • Berberidopsidales
                    • Caryophyllales
                    • asterids
                      • Cornales
                      • Ericales
                      • euasterids
                        • campanulids
                          • Aquifoliales (holly)
                          • asterales
                            • Asteraceae (daisies)
                          • Escalloniales
                          • Bruniales
                          • Apiales
                          • Dipsacales
                          • Paracryphiales
                        • lamiids
                          • Solanales
                          • Lamiales
                          • Vahliales
                          • Gentianales
                          • Boraginales
                          • Garryales
                          • Metteniusales
                          • Icacinales

non-flowering plants

flowering plants

  • the first flowering plants evolved around 140mya
  • 50-80% of the main family stems of angiosperms evolved in the warmest period of the Cretaceous from 100-90mya
  • the diversification leading to the extant diversity of most of the non-monotypic families (56–91%) did not start until the Cenozoic (56-37mya), this occurred in the context of profound changes in terrestrial ecosystems, including a well-documented trend of global warming in the Palaeocene and Eocene1)
history/evolution_plants.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/04 11:47 by gary1