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history:h_mus20c_a

History of Music - 20th Century - Formal

Introduction:

  • new styles:
    • modernism (Schonberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Hindemith)
    • neoclassicism (Stravinsky)
    • expressionism (Berg, Webern)
    • serialism (Boulez)
    • electronic music (Stockhausen)
    • aleatoric music & indeterminancy (Cage)
    • minimalism (Reich, Glass)

Composers:

  • Pre-WWII:
    • Edward Elgar (1857-1934):
      •  
    • Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958):
      • Fantasia on a theme by Thomas Tallis
      • Fantasia on Greensleeves
      • Symphony #3
    • Aaron Copland (1900-1990):
      • Fanfare for the Common Man
      • Appalachian Spring
    • French impressionists (based music on non-functional harmonic principles):
      • Claude Debussy (1862-1918):
        • French composer influenced by Wagner
        • orchestral:
          • Nocturnes (1899)
          • La Mer (1905)
          • Images (1912)
          • the ballets Jeux (1913), Khamma (1912), La boite a joujoux (1913)
      • Maurice Ravel (1875-1937):
        • works:
          • Bolero
          • Daphnis et Chloe, La valse
    • Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951):
      • Austro-Hungarian composer, citizen of America from 1941
      • freer treatment of dissonance in the twelve-tone music of the New Viennese School of Schonberg, Berg & Webern
      • Chamber Symphony #1, Pierrot Lunaire, Verklarte Nacht
    • Alban Berg (1885-1935):
      • Austrian composer, a pupil of Schonberg
    • Anton von Webern (1883-1945):
      • Austrian composer, one of Schonberg's 1st pupils
      • Music for string quartet, Five orchestral pieces
    • Paul Hindemith (1895-1963):
      • Mathis der Maler symphony
    • Carl Nielsen (1865-1931):
      • Symphonies 1-5
    • Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959):
      • Bachianas Brasileiras
    • Georges Enesco (1881-1955):
      • Romanian poem, Romanian rhapsodies
    • George Gershwin (1898-1937):
      • American composer wrote for pop music as well as concert music, writing songs, Broadway musicals which not only define the 1920's & 30's (esp. Oh Kay!, Girl Crazy, Lady Be Good), but break paths which would be fully exploited later by Rogers & Hammerstein.
      • the American equivalent of Verdi
      • Rhapsody in Blue (1924), Piano Concerto in F (1925)
    • Gustavus Holst (1874-1934):
      • English-born German
      • The Planets
    • Leos Janacek (1854-1928):
      • Quartets for strings, Sinfonietta
    • Bela Bartok (1881-1945):
      • introduced folk elements into music
      • Concerto for orchestra, concertos for piano, quartets
    • Jean Sibelius (1865-1957):
      • Concerto for violin, Finlandia, Symphonies #2,5
    • Carl Orff (1895-1982):
      • Carmina Burana (1936)
    • Erik Satie (1866-1925):
      • piano music: Gymnopedie, Gnossienne
    • Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936):
      • Ancient airs & dances, Fountains of Rome, Pines of Rome
    • Sergei Prokofieff (1891-1953):
      • Classical Symphony, Concerto #3 Piano, Peter and the Wolf, Sonatas for piano (6,7,8), Symphony #5
    • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971):
      • Russian composer who in 1934 became French nationalty & then in 1945, American nationality
      • works:
        • The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), The Rite of Spring (1913)
        • Pulcinella (1920) sparked neo-classicism
        • Piano Concerto, Sonata, Serenade in A
  • post-WWII:
    • Samuel Barber (1910-81):
      • American composer
      • Adagio for Strings
    • Aram Khachaturian (1903-78):
      • concertos, Gayane ballet
    • Joaquin Rodrigo (1901-99):
      • Concierto de Aranjuez for Guitar & Orchestra
    • Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975):
      • String Quartets #8, Symphonies 5,7,10
    • Leonard Bernstein (1918-90):
      • Chichester psalms
      • West Side Story
    • John Cage (1912-92):
      • American composer
    • Maurice Durufle (1902-1986):
      • Requiem
    • Luigi Nono (1924-90):
      • Austrian composer
      • works:
        • Intolleranza (1960), Il canto sospeso (1956), Hay que caminar
    • Witold Lutoslawski (1913-94)
      • Polish composer
history/h_mus20c_a.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/15 20:07 by gary1