User Tools

Site Tools


history:musichistory1

History of Music

Top 10 selling albums of the 20th century:

  1. Eagles - Their greatest hits 1971-5: 28 million
  2. Michael Jackson - Thriller: 26 million
  3. Pink Floyd - The Wall: 23 million
  4. Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin IV: 22 million
  5. Billy Joel - Greatest hits vol.1 & 2: 21 million
  6. Fleetwood Mac - Rumours: 19 million
  7. Whitney Houston - The Bodyguard soundtrack: 17 million
  8. Eagles - Hotel California: 16 million
  9. Bruce Springsteen - Born in the USA: 15 million
  10. Meatloaf - Bat out of hell: 14 million
  11. Eagles - Greatest Hits vol.2 

Western European:

  • Ancient:
    • pentatonic scale:
      • found as early as 2000BC & often used in folk music of Scottish (eg. Auld Lang Syne), Chinese & Negro origin
    • Pythagoras in 4thC BC devises a scale scientifically which is almost equivalent to the white keys on a piano & by 2ndC AD, the Greeks were using this scale in 7 different ways
    • new instruments:
      • harp, lyre, lute, trumpet, ancient oboe, ancient mouth organ, pan pipes, early wind organ
      • bellow-assisted organ (5thC)
    • ancient theatre with music (Greek/Roman)
    • christian church psalmody & hymnody:
      • non-metrical chants and chorals:
        • early Christian psalmody:
          • St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers (d.368 AD), has been called “the father of Christian hymnology”
          • St. Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan (c. 340-97), organized the work of St. Hilary and developed what has become known as “the Ambrosian Chant”. It is essentially similar to plainsong, but arranged for a more impressive effect using four scales
          • Pope Gregory (590-604) founded a school of sacred melody, added four new scales, composed new chants, and established the distinctive character of Gregorian chant which became the basis of cathedral music for the next 1,000 years
            • the use of the psalms sung monophonically, (i.e. with one unharmonized melody) to standard “tones” or melodies according to conventional rules. This music was performed by choirs of clergy or members of monastic orders.
            • “plainsong” modal consisting of:
              • 4 “authentic” modes of the original 7 Greek modes
              • 4 “plagal” modes added by Pope Gregory
              • 4 more modes were added in 1547 by a Swiss monk, Henry of Glarus & named the 12 modes with ancient Greek names albeit incorrectly, but have been adopted. 2 of his 12 modes have been adopted into current harmonic use as major (mode XI - Ionian) and minor (mode IX - Aeolian).
        • Laudi Spirituali:
          • popular devotional songs sung by the Laudesi, a Florentine confraternity instituted in 1233, music at 1st in unison, but later in parts & is regarded as a forerunner of the oratorio
        • later Middle Ages additional voices were introduced, with such devices as counterpoint (a different simultaneous melody) or organum (a sustained tone over which others sang the melody)
          • In 1562 the Council of Trent was called upon to reform the degenerating standards. One of the experts who was consulted was the great Giovanni Aloysio da Palestrina. A master of polyphony as well as the older plainsong, he proposed applying the new polyphony to grace the older modes of chant. His exceptional talents changed not only church music, but also influenced all the new composers of his age. Palestrina died in 1594, but his masses and his motets are still sung today. Although he was a Roman Catholic, he did much to help the Protestant Reformation in the development of the spiritual hymn. 
          • a contemporary to Palestrina was Thomas Tallis (1505-1585) in England who developed the Anglican school of church music. Called the “father of English Cathedral Music”, Queen Elizabeth I gave him her blessing in allowing congregational singing within the church
        • Anglican chant (17thC)
      • reformist hymnals:
        • metrical versions of Christian psalms and non-scriptual, spiritual “hymns” which could be sung by congregations rather than just choirs
        • Martin Luther:
          • developed hymns based on popular tunes of the people. 
          • wrote thirty-seven hymns including “Away in a Manger” and “A Mighty Fortress is Our God”
        • Louis Bourgeois eg. “Old Hundredth” or “Doxology”
        • English psalmody:
          • In 1562 John Day printed the Book of Psalms with psalm texts translated by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins and a number of others. This psalter used tunes from the Genevan Psalter and from English sources, including popular ballads. Day's psalter remained in use for more than 250 years and went through more than 600 editions (“the old version of the psalms”)
            • established the standard patterns which came to dominate English psalmody: Common Meter (8.6.8.6), Short Meter (6.6.8.6) and Long Meter (8.8.8.8)
          • A Scottish Psalter first appeared in 1564, with several subsequent editions
          • some reformist groups moved into exile in Holland. In 1612 in Amsterdam, Henry Ainsworth published his Book of Psalms for the use of these congregations, including 39 tunes of English, Dutch and French origin. The Ainsworth psalter was brought to Plymouth Colony in 1620 by the group we know as the Pilgrims and was used there for a generation
          • Nahum Tate and Nicholas Brady brought out their New Version of the Psalms in 1696
        • American psalmody:
          • The first American psalter, The Whole Book of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre, was produced by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony beginning in 1640. It is known as the Bay Psalm Book, the first book to be printed in English-speaking North America.
        • Reformist hymnody:
          • the father of English hymns is Issac Watts (1674-1748) 600 hymns incl. “O God our Help in Ages Past”,1st hymnal in 1707
          • Wesleyan Methodist hymns (mid-18thC):
            • Charles Wesley wrote ~6,000 hymns incl. “Hark the Herald Angels Sing”, “Jesus Lover of My Soul”
          • The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the near eclipse of psalmody in most Protestant communions of North America. Popular taste encouraged the introduction of the devotional lyric and the gospel song into public worship.
            • mid-19thC: hymn writer William Batchelder Bradbury (composer of such hymntunes as “Just as I am,” “The Solid Rock,” and “Sweet Hour of Prayer”) used piano accompaniment for his thousand-voice children's choirs at the Broadway Tabernacle in New York City.
            • late 19thC: hymn writer Ira Sankey - reed organ or piano accompaniment.
            • Tenessee-born hymn-writer revivalist Charles M. Alexander was an important influence on 20thC revivalism & evangelical churches & developed a style of evangelical pianism (use of the piano to accompany hymns - the piano was formerly more regarded as a secular instrument much as the guitar was in the 1960's) during his series of revivals in Australia in 1902 with evangelist R.A. Torrey. The 1902 Torrey/Alexander meetings in Australia included a five-day visit to Bendigo, home of the world's first prominent revivalist pianist, Robert Harkness who had started publishing his hymns in 1896. 1909 Alexander and Harkness joined the evangelistic team of the Dutch Reformed Church minister, Dr. J. W Chapman. The Chapman organization maintained an international ministry that included tours of Australia, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Korea.
          • As mass evangelism declined from 1920-1950, the advent of the radio and recording industries provided new avenues for the dissemination of evangelical music: radio, in particular, replaced the evangelistic crusade as a means for gaining recognition and success in religious music. One of the first pianists to gain renown through radio was Lee Roy Abernathy who in 1938 developed a radio-based correspondence course for aspiring revivalist pianists resulting in some 100,000 learning to play using his method. 
          • Pianists such as George Schuler, Merrill Dunlop, Dwight Brock,(44) and Herbert Buffum(45) were important contributors to evangelical pianism during this period of radio revivalism, but Rudy Atwood is probably the most important pianist of the radio-revival period.
      •  
  • “Classical / folk”
    • Middle Ages:
      • new instruments:
        • fiddle, portable organ
      • reels
      • religious plays with music
      • Celtic folk
    • Renaissance (15th century):
      • new instruments:
        • violin, harpsichord
        • music composition printing (~1500)
      • dance forms (fore-runners of ballet):
        • balli
        • balletos
        • bassadanza
        • allemonde
        • courante
        • paumes
        • galliards
      • Burgundian composers (1400-1460):
        • chansons replace Gregorian chants in masses (eg. Gilles Binchois )
        • motets
      • contrapuntal music (eg. Guillaume Dufay)
      • Netherlanders polyphony (late 15thC) - continued Burgundian style but with homogeneous voices
      • opera:
        • 1st surviving opera - Peri's “Euridice” 1600
        • Monteverdi's “The Fable of Orpheus” 1607
        • 1st public opera house (Venice 1637)
    • Baroque era (17th C-early 18thC):
      • music styles:
        • continuous contrapuntal - ricercare, fantasia, and fancy
        • canzona or sonata
        • theme and variations, passacaglia, chaconne, and chorale prelude
        • improvisatory keyboard styles: preludes, toccatas, fugue, and fantasias
        • contrasting elements styles: concertato, concertate, and concerto
        • the system of harmonic relationships called tonality began to dominate music
          • Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706) - German composer/organist
          • Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) - Italian virtuoso violinist, composer
          • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) - German composer/organist/violinist, master of counterpoint
          • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) - German composer/organist who avoided Bach's contrapuntal techniques
      • 1660's:
        • sarabande
        • gavotte
        • musette
        • hornpipe
        • gigue
        • French minuet
        • English country dance (fore runner of contredance)
      • new instruments:
        • pianoforte
      • neopolitan opera style (Italian style eg Handel)
        • featuring bel canto often sung by eunuchs until Napoleon banned castration of singers
        • opera seria (serious opera)
        • opera buffa (comic opera eg. Mozart “Don Giovani”)
          • serious comedy opera (Mozart “The Marriage of Figaro” 1786)
      • music styles:
        • dance:
          • French rococo or style galant (courtly style using short trills usually on harpsichord)
          • quadrille in France becomes fashionable 1745
          • minuet in France becomes fashionable 1751
          • waltz in Vienna becomes fashionable 1773
          • bolero in Spain 1780
        • symphony, sonata, concerto, and string quartet
        • Viennese classical school: Haydn (1732–1809), Mozart (1756-91), and Beethoven (1770-1827)
    • Romantic era (19thC):
      • in all musical genres, a high value was placed on uniqueness of expression
      • also a revival of Bach's music which had been ignored for 80yrs, although played with a romantic twist to it.
      • music forms:
        • German art song “lied”:
          • eg.Schubert (1797-1828), Schumann (1810-56), Johannes Brahms (1833-97),
        • Vienna waltzes:
          • Johann the Younger Strauss (1825-99)
        • virtuoso performers: Liszt (1811–86), Paganini (1782-1840)
        • late 19thC:
          • chromaticism harmonics eg. Wagner (1813-83)
          • folk music idioms reintroduced harmony & melody eg. Grieg (1843–1907), Wagner, Glinka (1804-57), Smetana (1824-84)
          • French impressionism style eg. Debussy (1862–1918), Ravel (1875-1937)
          • French satirical style eg. Eric Satie (1866-1925)
      • dance forms:
        • waltz
        • mazurka
        • polka
        • contredance
        • cotillion (fore-runner of American square dance)
      • symphony instrumentals
        • eg. Tchaikovsky (1840–93), Mendelssohn(1809–47), Chopin (1810–49)
      • grand opera:
        • 1st grand opera - Meyerbeer's “Robert le Diable” (1831)
        • late 19th century:
          • Verdi (1813-1901), Wagner
        • turn of 20th centrury:
          • Puccini (1858–1924)
        • 20th century:
          • Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Benjamin Britten, Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
          • Broadway musicals
    • 20th Century:
      • Western music forms:
        • extreme chromaticism (atonal)
          • early 1920s Schoenberg devised the twelve-tone method of writing atonal music
        • polytonality
        • microtonal music
        • neoclassicism eg. Stravinsky, Copland
        • musique concrète (1948) - combining recorded street sounds
        • serialism eg. Messiaen and his pupil Boulez
        • indeterminancy (chance) eg. Americans John Cage and Earle Brown
        • since 1950, emphasis on sounds, their qualities, textures, densities, and durations rather than melody or harmony

White American:

  • late 19th century:
    • marches (1889), sousa
      • two-step dance
        • foxtrot (1913)
    • folk:
    • country & western
  • 20th century:
    • popular 50's music - bland, predictable, reassuring eg. Perry Como, Patti Page, Doris Day, Dean Martin, Fontane Sisters
    • Rock & Roll - see under Black American - Blues, etc.

African American:

  • African tribal music
  • field hollering (1800's)
  • syncopated dance music (1800's)
    • New York minstrel shows (1880's)
      •  black musical theatre (1890's)
    • marching bands (1890's)
    • ragtime (1895-1920) (eg. Scott Joplin, “The Entertainer”, “Maple Leaf Rag”)
      • stride (1910-20's)
        • developed in New York, it was the 1st piano style to be incorporated into jazz
      • orchestral ragtime-jazz (1910-20's)
        • NY based; eg. James Reese Europe; Fletcher Henderson; 
      • jazz (1895 -1930)
        • the 1st indigenous American style to affect music in the rest of the world
        • jazz's many roots are derived from the beat of ragtime syncopation & driving bass bands to soaring gospel choirs mixed with field hollers & the deep down growl of blues
        • the city of New Orleans features prominently in early development of jazz with Chicago becoming a focal point in the early 1920's after clubs in New Orleans were closed down. New York became the jazz centre in the late 1920's.
        • early jazz:
          • New Orleans Congo Square (early 1800's)
          • New Orleans Society Orchestra (1890's)
          • 1st real jazz musician - Buddy Bolden (c1895) & others incl. Freddie Keppard, Bunk Johnson & Clarence Williams
          • “classic jazz” (1910-30):
            • 2nd wave jazz musicians formed small bands & increased its complexity forming “hot jazz”
            • eg. “King” Oliver; Jelly Roll Morton;
            • Chicago jazz (early 1920's) - Earl Hines, Louis Armstrong; Johnny Dodds; King Oliver;
              • New York jazz (late 1920's eg. the Cotton Club)
                • 1920's jazz: Duke Ellington;  Clarence Williams; 
                • 1930's jazz/swing singers:  Billie Holiday; Ella Fitzgerald; Fats Waller;
        • big band jazz (1930's-1946 with 10 or more instruments, mainly brass)
          • swing (1930-1950) esp. Kansas City - Benny Goodman; Jimmy Lunceford; Count Basie; Coleman Hawkins “Body & Soul”
            • jive (1930-50)
              • connected musically to swing, jive featured its singers making up nonsense syllables and humorous words, some of which are adopted by the youth of the swing era
              • eg. Cab Calloway, Fats Waller, Slim Gaillard, Leo Watson and Harry “The Hipster” Gibson
          • dixieland 
            • like swing improvised melodically
            • based in Chicago area, but got  a bad image when amateurs played it in 1950's 
          • jitterbug dance
          • foxtrot revival
          • bebop/bop (1940's)
            • soloists used chordal rather than melodic improvisation as in swing
            • in losing its melody, it uplifted jazz to an art music but cut deeply into its commercial success
            • eg. Charlie Parker, Thelonius Monk
            • East coast jazz
            • soul jazz (eg. Adderley)
              • the most popular jazz style of the 1960s, differs from bebop and hard bop in that the emphasis is on  the rhythmic groove
              • groove
                • a funky, joyous music injected with blues and concentrates on rhythm, usually performed by small combos
            • “cool” or west coast jazz (1950's):
              • mixture of bop with certain elements of discarded swing, smoothing out dissonances
              • classical & jazz fusion eg. Miles Davis, Dave Brubeck
              • Gerry Mulligan; Shorty Rogers; Gil Evans;
                • Tristano school
                • Bossa Nova (1950's)
                  • added Brazilian rhythms to west coast jazz
                  • eg. Antonio Carlos Jobim; Charlie Byrd; Stan Getz; “The Girl from Ipanema”
              • hard bop (1955-70)
                • simpler more soulful melodies than bop
                • the bop for the 50's & 60's
                • eg. Gerald Wilson, Jackie McLean; Lee Morgan; 
                • Avant-Garde jazz (1960's)
                  • Cecil Taylor; Ornette Coleman; Sun Ra; John Coltrane;
                • free jazz (1960's)
                  • a radical departure from swing, dixieland, bop, or cool as the soloist did not have to follow a progression or structure but could go in an unpredictable direction.
                  • overlaps with Avant Garde jazz.
                  • eg. Ornette Coleman;
                  • jazz-rock fusion (1970's)
                    • eg. Return to Forever; Miles Davis; Tribal Tech; Chick Corea's Elektric Band;
                    • crossover jazz (late 1970's - 80's)
                      • fusion of jazz with rock, pop, R&B to get wider audiences
                      • Al Jarreau; Kenny G; George Benson; Spyro Gyra; the Rippingtons;
                    • free funk (1980's)
                      • mixture of Avant Garde with funky rhythms eg. Miles Davis
                      • M-base
                        • short for “macro-basic array of structured extemporization,” M-Base was developed by altoist Steve Coleman and Greg Osby, tenor saxophonist Gary Thomas and various other young associates
                          (including singer Cassandra Wilson) in the 1980s.
                  • mainstream jazz (1970's)
                    • neobop new swing (1980's)
                      • classicism (1990's)
                  • AACM (1970's)
                    • neo-classicism (1980's-90's)
                      • No Wave Noise music (1980's-90's)
          • “territorial bands” in other US cities:
            • Bennie Moten Band which evolved into Count Basie Orchestra;
            • charleston dance (1910-1930)
            •  
          •  
    • blues:
      • african-american 12-bar bent-note melody where singer sings a line of sorrow then guitar answers, born in the Nth Mississippi delta following the civil war & initially was only played from memory.
      • rural “folk” blues:
        • arose from 3 key regions:
          • Mississippi - Charley Patton; Robert Johnson; Johnny Shines;
          • Georgia - more melodic & less intense eg. Blind Willie McTell & Blind Boy Fuller; 
          • Texas 
        • an example of the evolution of a rock song:
          • The House of the Rising Sun has origins in 17thC English balladry, having harmony & rhythm similar to Greensleeves, and probably was created at the turn of the 20thC by itinerant black American musicians under Calvinist influence, who had frequented the red light district of New Orleans, from which it evolved as it was passed from musician to musician. It's 1st recording appears to be in 1937 by Georgia Turner who sang The Rising Sun. It was popularised by black American Josh White in the early 1940's combining gospel & blues style. It was adopted by leftists in the southern USA folk scene in the 1940's & 50's because of its identification with the oppressed. Various versions were released by folk singers including Bob Dylan in 1962, with little success. The electrified rock version by The Animals in 1964 brought black American blues to the UK and then ironically introduced it to white northern USA as it became an anthem for the new 1960's culture.
            • NB. black American Tex Alexander released a 12-bar blues song in 4/4 with different lyrics in 1928 called Rising Sun Blues.
      • in the 1930's with the mass migration north to urban centres by African Americans, the blues became urbanised
      • instrumental form popularised in 1911-4 by black composer W.C.Handy's “Memphis Blues” and “St. Louis Blues”
        • boogie woogie (1920's - 1950's)
          • a jazz style of piano playing that features a “hot” rhythm based on eight-to-the-bar figures with the left hand. The style is believed to have originated in Kansas City with pianists such as Pete Johnson and Joe Turner.
          • uses two pulses stated by the left hand for every beat & the 12-bar blues chord progression as its repertory.
          • influenced accompaniment styles in popular music of rhythm & blues as well as the beginnings of R&R.
          • eg. Pinetop Smith; Meade Lux Lewis; Albert Ammons; 
            • boogie woogie country & western (1950's eg. Hank Williams)
      • vocal form of blues:
        • began a craze in 1920's with Mamie Smith, Ma Rainey, Ida Cox, Bessie Smith & in the 30's, Billie Holiday
        • gospel:
          • the  term “gospel music” was probably coined in the Twenties by Thomas Dorsey, a Georgia blues singer who was converted and began composing religious songs in popular styles. Originally denounced, it caught on with the black sanctified church and has evolved along side black secular music.
        • bluegrass:
          • a subgenre of country music, bluegrass shed it's formative skin and forged a separate identity in the mid-Forties when bandleader Bill Monroe altered the complexion of “hillbilly” music. Monroe fused country, blues, jazz, gospel, and Celtic folk into an unified style.
        • R&B vocal groups (1930-40's):
          • the vocal group sound placed melody over rhythm, the song over the singer and  a blending of voices over individual personality or style
          • vocal group singing was the most popular style of rhythm and blues in the early 1950's, the first music to be called “rock & roll” and the favorite of the the teenagers and disc jockeys.
          • pre-rock&roll (1930's): eg. Mill's Brothers, the Ink Spots
          • transitional from black to white acceptance: The Ravens, The Orioles “Crying in the chapel”
          • R&B dance oriented: The Dominoes, Midnighters
          • jump blues:
            • an uptempo, jazz-tinged style of blues that first came to prominence in the mid- to late '40s
            • was the bridge between the older styles of blues- primarily those in a small band context - and the big band jazz sound of the 1940s
          • vocal urbanised blues in late 1940's & 50's:
            • Chicago & Detroit: Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, John Lee Hooker, Howlin' Wolf, Elmore James
            • T-Bone Walker & B.B.King pioneered a style of guitar playing combining jazz technique with blues tonality, with B.B.King inventing the concept of the lead guitar
            • soul (1950's - 60's)
              • a merger of gospel-charged singing, secular subject matter, and funk rhythms, soul grew out of Fifties rhythm & blues, spurred by Ray Charles' electic, decidedly secular late-Fifties hits.
              • eg. James Brown, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding, Aretha Franklin
              • Motown (1960's)
                • Gordy combined the polished images of the Motown acts with a gospel-based music that could appeal to mainstream America. Blues and R&B always had a funky look to it back in those days, and Motown wanted to have a look that fathers and mothers would want their children to follow. They wanted to kill the imagery of liquor and drugs and how some people thought it pertained to R&B. Therefore they rejected anything that had a strong blues sound to it when choosing material for their artist.
                • In place of the blues and R&B, Gordy favored a distinct music grounded by an insistent pounding rhythm section, punctuated by horns and tambourines and featuring shrill, echo-laden vocals that bounced back and forth in a call and response of gospel. Building upon his experience with the girl group sound, he produced a full sound reminiscent and expanding on Phil Specter's wall of sound.
                • eg The Supremes, The Four Tops, Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder; The Jackson Five;
              • 1970's-90's soul:
                • Earth, Wind & Fire; Roberta Flack; Chaka Khan; Pointer Sisters;
                • Oleta Adams; Anita Baker; Blues Brothers; Natalie Cole; Randy Crawford; Whitney Houston; Janet Jackson; Sade;
              • white soul:
                • 1970's: Hall & Oates; Joe Cocker;
                • 1990's: Simply Red; George Michael; Boyz II Men; Mariah Carey;
              • funk (1970's)
                • New York urban (1980's)
                  • rap:
                    • Grandmaster Flash; NWA; Public Enemy; Vanilla Ice; MC Hammer; Ice-T; Beastie Boys;
                  • hip hop (NY urban ghetto culture of music, dance & graffiti art including breakdancing, robotic dancing, scratching using vinyl records)
                    • Herbie Nancock's “Rockit”; Chaka Khan; 
                    • acid jazz (late 1980's-90's) - UK- Stereo Collective; Jamiroquai;
                • funk heavy metal:
                  • Red Hot Chilli Peppers; 
            • urban blues (whites singing the R&B)
              • eg. Rolling Stones, Fleetwood Mac, Eric Clapton/Cream; Janis Joplin; Robert Palmer;
            • ska (Jamaican 1960's fast-paced off-beat  with scant vocalising)
              • rocksteady (bass-heavy variant)
                • reggae (1960's-70's eg. Jimmy Cliff; Bob Marley)
                  • rock reggae fusion eg. The Police;
                  • ragga (1990's rap version) eg. Shaggy
          • DooWop (1948-54):
            • an urban North sound that has been romanticized as having been born on the street corner. 
            • the truth is that these teenagers first musical experiences were in the home and\or black church 
            • most of the these groups began during high school and were of bonding experience. 
            • the members were typical teenagers, socially awkward and shy, trying to impress the girls. 
            • they formed groups consisting of  4-6 individuals where each knew their role and part within the group
            • the birth of the vocal arrangement and over all feel of rhythm and blues. 
            • blow harmonies and nonsense syllables, use of falsetto to run over tenor leads, suggestive in up tempo innocent love
          • rockabilly (1950's)
            • a brash, lively, unselfconscious hybrid of blues and country that became rock and roll. 
            • it came from Sam Phillip's Sun Studios in Memphis, where Phillips recorded small bands - slapping string bass, twanging lead guitar, acoustic rhythm guitar - with plenty of echo while singers made astonishing yelps, gulps, hiccups and stutters as they sang about girls, cars, slacks and even little green men from outer space. 
            • eg. Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison, Charlie Rich, Carl Perkins, Eddie Cochrane,  Buddy Holly
            • The original rockabilly style ended with the fifties.
            • rock 'n' roll (1950's) (see also: online history of R&R)
              • Credence Clearwater Revival
              • folk rock (1950's eg. Bob Dylan)
              • jazz-rock “fusion” (eg. Miles Davis, Joni Mitchell)
              • California style/West Coast (1960's)
                • hot rod music & surf music
                • Beach Boys, Ronny & the Daytonas, Jan & Dean, The Ripchords, 
                • Latin,rock,blues fusion eg. Santana
              • 2nd wave rock (late 1950's-1960's):
                • clean-cut look with a new type of rock.
                • their songs had innocent lyrics, melodic “hooks” and  were hummable tunes while keeping the beat, excitement and vitality.
                • less explosive than their rock and roll predecessors, they brought something new and innovative. What they lacked in chaotic energy was more the compensated with thoughtful lyrics that spoke to the hearts and minds of teenagers, helping them to come to terms with the confusing contradictions of adolescence.
                • eg. Everly Bros, Eddie Cochrane, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis, Rickie Nelson, Ritchie Valens
                • pop rock:
                  • girl group pop:
                    • the 1960s yielded one of pop music's most enjoyable trends, the “girl group” phenomenon.
                    • starting in the 1950s as a trickle represented by the Hearts, the Blossoms, the Joytones, the Clickettes, the Deltairs, the Quintones, the Chantels, and the Bobbettes, it became a flood of groups in the 1960s, including the Shirelles, the Chiffons, the Shangri-Las, the Crystals, the Ronettes, the Angels, Reparata and the Delrons, the Exciters, the Cookies, the Supremes, the Marvelettes, and Patti Labelle and the Blue Belles.
                  • early 60's male pop:
                    • While the Girl Groups (eg. Motown) were making consistently great records, their male counterparts were having a harder time defining their style and place in the early sixties. In contrast to the relatively unified front presented by the girl groups, the male singers and groups were widely scattered across the stylistic spectrum between the extremes of teen idol pop and mainstream respectability and artless garage band thrashing. 
                    • Only a handful of US pop singers and groups stood out from the pack with distinctive personal styles and voices, most notably Roy Orbison, Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons, Dion, Neil Sedaka, Del Shannon and Gene Pitney.
                    • early Beatles; 
                  • 60's & 70's pop rock:
                    • The Monkees, Carpenters, Donny Osmond, David Cassidy, Bay City Rollers, Abba
                  • 80's & 90's pop rock:
                    • Stock, Aitken & Waterman - Kylie Minogue, etc.
                • country rock (1970's):
                  • The Eagles; Emmylou Harris; Linda Ronstadt;
                • rock-soul fusion:
                  • Bob Seger; INXS;
              • British rock (1960's)
                • pop rock (1960's eg. early Beatles)
                • acid rock (late 1960's eg. late Beatles, the Doors, early Pink Floyd)
                  • German krautrock 1970's cosmic music (Can, Neu!)
                • progressive rock (late 1960's eg. Yes; Emerson, Lake & Palmer; ELO; Pink Floyd)
                • operatic rock (late 1970's eg. Queen, Roxy Music, Pink Floyd)
                • punk rock (late 1970's eg. Sex Pistols)
                  • new wave (1980's eg. Costello, Police, Duran Duran)
                  • Oi! (early 1980's half-skinhead, half punk subculture)
                  • Anarcho
                  • Ska revival
                  • Mod revival
                  • New Romantic anti-punk (early 1980's eg. Spandau Ballet, Duran Duran)
                  • industrial futuristic (early 1980's eg. Joy Division, Gary Numan, Ultravox, Bowie) 
                  • psychobilly (fusion of 50's US rockabilly and 70's UK pink rock eg. The Meteors, Guana Batz) 
                  • post-punk (early 1980's eg. Siouxsie & the Banshees, Joy Division)
                    • 1980's alternative rock (REM, U2, the Pixies, the Smiths, Sonic Youth)
                    • gothic punk (early 1980's eg. Bauhaus, UK Decay, and later, The Sisters of Mercy)
                      • gothic rock (mid 80's eg. The Mission, Fields of the Nephilim, All About Eve, The Cure - often borrowed heavily from Led Zeppelin & AC/DC & thus paradoxically reinvented what punk had fought against)
                        • industrial goth pop in Europe late 1990's esp. Germany
                    • early 1990's British post-punk rock
                      • early Radiohead (influenced by Queen, Pink Floyd, Can, Bob Dylan, Elvis Costello, Joy Division, Siouxsie & the Banshees, Magazine, REM, U2, the Pixies, the Smiths, Sonic Youth)
                      • late 1990's electronic style Radiohead (influenced by Aphex Twin, jazz, krautrock bands such as Can and Neu!, 20thC classical music, hip hop, etc)
              • hard rock (1970's)
                • hard-rock boogie - blues fusion eg. ZZ Top
                • heavy metal rock
                  • Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Slade, Deep Purple
                  • late 1970's-1980's:  AC/DC, The Angels, Kiss
                  • 1980's -90's: Iron Maiden; Guns n Roses; Aerosmith, Metallica;
                  • grunge (1990's):
                    • Nirvana, Pearl Jam
              • disco dance (1970's eg. Donna Summer - “Hot Stuff”, “Bad Girls”)
                • club dance of 1990's:
                  • house
                  • Hi-NRG
                  • freestyle
                  • techno

Latin American:

  • Brazil:
    • samba (popularised in US in 1920's-1930's)
      • bossa nova (1960's) (also roots from jazz)
    • maxixe
  • Cuban (mainly popularised in US in 1930's):
    • rumba
    • conga
    • mambo
    • cha cha
    • habanera
      • Argentine tango (introduced in 1912 to US)
  • Haitian merengue
  • Caribbean:
    • folk, calypso combined with rock & soul ⇒ Jamaican reggae dance (Bob Marley)
  •  

Eastern:

  • dangdut (Indonesian traditional form of folk music with Indian & Arabic influences)
    • ngebor (drill dance by Indonesia's Inul Daratista 2003)
  • Gypsy music
    • Spanish flamenco (15thC)
history/musichistory1.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/15 20:10 by gary1