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Roman Empire & European Leaders

Roman Empire & Early Christian times:

Roman emperorsEarly “Catholic” ChurchTetrarchsJewish High PriestsProcurators of Judea
Augustus 27BC-14ADMithraism brought to Rome 60BC from PersiaHerod the Great 41BC-4BCHyrcanus 63BC-?Antipater 48BC-7AD?
Tiberius 14-37ADJesus 0-32Phasael Archelaus 4BC-6AD Herod Antipas 4BC-39AD Herod Phillip 4BC - 33AD Ananus 7AD-17AD Caiaphas 17-37 Coponius 7AD-9AD Marcus Ambivius 9-13 Annius Rufus 13-15 Valerius Gratus 15-26 Pontius Pilate 26-35
Caligula 37-41 Herod Agrippa I 33-44Jonathan 37-59Marcellus 37-44
Claudius 41-54Peter 42-67 Cuspius Fadus 44-46
Nero 54-68 Joseph, son of Simon 59-?
Galba 68-69Linus Tuscany 67-79
Otho; Vitellius 69
Vespasian 69-79 Fall of Jerusalem 70AD
Titus 79-81(Ana)cletus 79-92
Domitian 81-96Clement 92-101
Nerva 96-98Evaristus 99-107
Trajan 98-117Alexander I 107-16
Hadrian 117-138Sixtus I 116-25 Telesphorus 125-38
Antoninius Pius 138-161Hyginus 138-42 Pius I 142-55
Marcus Aurelius 161-180Anicetus 155-66 Soter 166-74
Commodus 180-192Eleuterius 174-89
Pertinax, Didius 193 Septimus Severus 193-211 Victor I 189-99
Caracalla 211-217Zephyrinus 199-217
Macrinus 217-218Callistus I 217-22
Elagabalus 218-222
Alexander Severus 222-235Urban I 222-30 Pontian 230-5
Maximinus 235-238Anterus 235
Gordian I,II,Pupienus 238
Balbinus 238

Late Roman Empire and the formation of the Catholic Church:

Roman EmperorsPapacy
Gordian III 238-244ADFabian 236-50
Philip the Arab 244-49
Decius 249-51
Hostilianus 251
Gallus, Volusianus 251-53Cornelius 251-3
Valerian, Gallienus 253-68Lucius I 253-4 Stephen I 254-7 Sixtus II 257-8
Claudius II 268-70Dionysius  258-68
Aurelian 270-5Felix I 269-74
Tacitus, Florianus 275-6
Probus 276-282Eutychian 275-83
Carus 282-3
Carinus 283-5Caius 283-96
Numerianus 283-4
Diocletian 284-305Marcellinus 296-304God of Mithra becomes protector of Rome 304
Constantius 305-6
Galerius 305-10Marcellus I 308-9
Maxentius 306-12 Constantine the Great 306-37 Licinius 308-24 Eusebius 309-10 Meltiades 311-4 Sylvester I  314-35 Constantine officially supports Christianity, but in 334AD recalled Arius from exile & made Arianism favoured over Catholic Church by Rome
Constantine II 337-40 Constans 337-50 Constantius 337-61 Marcus 336 Julius I,  337-66
Magnentius 350-53Liberius 352-66
Julian the Apostate 361-63 Jovian 363-4 Arianism now the official faith of the Roman Empire
Valentinian I 364-75 Valens 364-78 Damascus I 366-84
Gratian 375-83 Valentinian II 375-92
Magnus Maximus 383-8
Eugenius 392-4 Theodosius the Great 379-95 Siricius 384-99Theodosius: bans Arianism (the religion of the converted German “barbarians”) in 379AD bans non-Christian beliefs 392AD

The divided Roman Empire & its fall:

West Roman EmperorEast Roman EmperorPapacy
Honorius 395-423Arcadius 395-408Anastasius 399-401 Innocent I 401-17 395AD, Visigoths under Alaric (370-410) rise up & in 401, as a Roman general, encouraged by the East, led a German invasion of Italy 406AD, vast armies of Vandals, Sueves & Alans crossed Rhine into Gaul resulting in the Roman withdrawal from Britain. Vandals ravaged Gaul & moved into Spain in 408. 410AD, Alaric captures Rome 416AD, Burgundians establish the 1st German kingdoms
Constantius II 421 Valentinian III 425-55 Theodosius II 408-50Zozimus 417-8 Boniface I 418-22 Celestine I 422-32 Sixtus III 432-40 429AD, under Gaiseric (390-477), the Vandals invade Africa robbing Rome of its food supply & becomes the independent ruler of Nth Africa in 442AD. 440AD, Huns, nomadic Mongols who had settled in Hungary threaten East & West alike
Marcian 450-7Leo I the Great 440-61452AD, Romans, Franks & Visigoths halt the invasion of the Huns led by Attila (c 406-53AD), Attila dies on his wedding night from burst blood vessel?
Petronius Maximus 455
Avitus 455-6
Majorian 457-61Leo I 457-74
Libius Severus 461-5 Hilary 461-8Franks consolidate their power & under Clovis I (465-511), created a united, non-heretical Christian Gaul
Anthemius 467-72 Simplicius 468-83471AD, Ostrogoths leave Black Sea moving into Macedonia & Thessaly
Olybrius 472
Glycerius 473
Julius Nepos 474-5Leo II 474
Romulus Augustulus 475-6
Fall of Rome 476ADZeno Justinian 482-565 German soldier Odoacer rules Italy (476-493AD) 487AD, Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric, march on Constantinople, but was bought off by Emperor Zeno who persuaded him to go to Italy & defeat Odoacer which he did in 493AD, forming the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy Justinian fought Persian king Chosroes (r. 531-79) for 35yrs & reconquested Africa (533-4) and Italy (536-54)
history/h_romanemp1.txt · Last modified: 2013/01/14 19:55 by gary1

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