User Tools

Site Tools


history:h_lang1

Origin of languages

Indo-European:

Latin

  • Italian (~AD1000) - Italy
  • French - France, Belgium, Switzerland, Haiti, W.Africa
  • Spanish - Spain, Latin America
  • Portugese - Portugal, Brazil

primitive Germanic

  • North Germanic
    • old Norse (Vikings)
      • Icelandic
      • Faeroese
      • Norwegian
      • Swedish
      • Danish
  • East Germanic
    • Gothic (extinct)
    • Vandal  (extinct)
    • Burgundian  (extinct)
  • West Germanic
    • old High German (15-16thC AD)
      • official written German (spoken in Sth) - Germany, Austria, Switzerland
        • Yiddish (Hebrew characters) - US, USSR, Israel
    • old Low German
      • old Low Franconian
        • Dutch - Netherlands
          • Afrikaans - Sth Africa
      • old Saxon
        • low German (spoken in Nth)
    • AngloFrisian
      • Anglosaxon
        • English - UK, USA, Canada, Australia, NZ
      • old Frisian
        • Frisian

primitive Greek

  • modern Greek - Greece

Albanian

Armenian

primitive Celtic

  • Insular
    • Gaelic
      • Erse (Scottish Gaelic)
      • Irish Gaelic
      • Manx
    • Brythonic/Brittanic
      • Breton - Brittany region of France
      • Cornish
      • Welsh
      • Gallic
  • Continental
    • Gaulish

Balto-Salvic

  • Baltic
    • Old Prussian
    • Lithuanian
    • Lettish
  • Slavonic
    • Southern Slavonic
      • Bulgarian
      • Serbo-Croat
      • Slovenian
    • Russian
      • Ukrainian
      • Russian
    • Western Slavonic
      • Czech
      • Polish

Anatolian

  • Hittite (extinct)

Indo-Iranian

  • Indic / Indo-Aryan (Nth West India 1000BC)
    • Old Indic
      • Vedic Sanskrit (1500-200BC) - sacred Hindu scriptures
      • classical Sanskrit (500BC-)
        • Middle Indic (3rd C BC)
          • Prakrits - vernacular dialects of Sanskrit incl. Pali the language of the Buddhist canonical writings & remains in liturgical use in Sri Lanka, Burma & Thailand
            • New/Modern Indic (10thC AD) - northern & central parts of Indian subcontinent & now consist of ~35 main languages:
              • Hindi - written in Devanagari script & spoken by Hindus
                • Western Hindi (180m speakers)
                • Eastern Hindi (Hindustani) - mixed Hindi/Urdu that developed around Delhi & spread in 16th-18th C AD ⇒ lingua franca
              • Urdu - similar to Hindi but contains many Persian & Arabic words & written in Persian Arabic script & mainly spoken by Muslims
              • Bengali - 120m speakers - Bengal, Bangladesh
              • Gujarati
              • Punjabi - language of the gurus - founders of the Sikh religion
              • Marathi
              • Bihari
              • Oriya
              • Rajasthani
    • Dardic
      • Kashmiri
      • Romany / Gypsy
    • Dravidian - southern India
      • Tamil - Tamil Nadu
      • Telegu - Andhra Pradesh
      • Kannada (Kanarese) - Mysore
      • Malayalam - Kerala
  • Old Iranian (Iran, Afghanistan 1000BC)
    • Western
      • Baluchi
      • Pushtu
      • Persian
      • Kurdish
    • Eastern
      • Avestan
      • Pasto/Pushto/Afghan

Hamito-Semitic / Afro-Asian:

  • Semitic
    • North Peripheral group / Assyro-Babylonian language / Akkadian - Mesopotamia (3000-400BC)
      • Ugaritic
      • Phoenician
        • Ancient Hebrew (biblical) (12th-2nd C BC) - in its earliest form was probably identical to Phoenician
          • Mishnaic Hebrew (3rdC BC)
            • Modern Hebrew (19thC AD)
      • Aramaic (1000BC) - language of Aramaeans, used in Mesopotamia & Syria; lingua franca of Middle East, survived fall of Nineveh (612BC) & Babylon (539BC) & remained official language of Persian Empire (539-337BC), and became the language of the Palestine Jews with Jesus preaching using it.
        • Christian Aramaic / Syriac (4th-7thC AD until the Arabic conquest in 7th C AD) - survives today in small Christian communities
    • South Central group
      • Arabic - language of the Koran ⇒ sacred language of Muslims; earliest writings in 4thC AD; widely spread with rise of Islam in 622AD
        • Maltese - heavily influenced by Italian
    • South Peripheral group
      • South Arabic dialects
        • Minaeans & Sabaeans (ancient times)
      • Ethiopian languages
        • Gecez / classical Ethiopian
        • Amharic
        • Tigre
        • Tigrinya
        • Gurage
  • Berber - nth & nthwest Africa - most now written in Arabic script
    • Tuareg
  • Egyptian
    • Old Egyptian (3000-2200BC)
      • Middle Egyptian (2000-1300BC)
        • Late Egyptian (1570-1070BC)
          • demotic (popular) Egyptian (7thCBC -4thC AD)
            • Coptic (3rdC AD -) written in Greek characters & used in Christian literature; largely supplanted by Arabic 8-14thC AD but still used by the Coptic Church
  • Cushitic - Ethiopia, Somalia, Red Sea
    • Galla - Kenya, Sth Ethiopia - written in Ethioian script
    • Somali - written in Latin alphabet
  • Chadic - central & West Africa
    • Hausa - northern Nigeria & is regional lingua franca & traditionally written in Arabic but in 20thC began to be written in Latin alphabet

Sino-Tibetan:

Sinitic group

  • Old/Archaic Chinese (8th-3rdC BC)
    • Middle/Ancient Chinese (to 11thC AD)
      • Mandarin (71%) (Nth of Yantgtze & southwest China)
        • classical Chinese - replaced in Chinese schools by Baihua in 1917
        • Baihua - written vernacular form of Mandarin
        • Putonghua - official spoken language of China since 1956
        • Wade-Giles romanization - a phonetic spelling system 1892
        • Pinyin phonetic romanization 1958
      • Wu (9%) (Shanghai, Suzhou, Hangzhou)
      • Min (4%) (Fujian, Taiwan, Hainan)
      • Gan (2%) (Jiangxi)
      • Xiang (5%) (Hunan)
      • Kejia (4%) (Hakka communities in southeast China)
      • Yue (Cantonese) (5%) (Guanxi, Guangdong)

Tibeto-Burman group

  • Tibet, Nepal, western China, Assam State in India

Tai group

  • Thailand, Laos, Burma, Assam, nth Vietnam, sw China
  • Thai
  • Lao

Austro-Asiatic:

  • Munda - polysyllabic languages - eastern India
  • Nicobarese - Nicobar islands
  • Mon-Khmer - southeast Asia
    • those heavily influenced by Indian Sanskrit & Pali:
      • Khmer - Cambodia
      • Mon - Burma, Thailand
    • Vietnamese - Vietnam - heavily influenced by Chinese

African:

Nilo-Saharan:

  • a group of languages mainly spoken Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda & Kenya, most are tonal
  • more than 100 languages currently spoken by 30 million people, examples are:
    • Turkana (Kenya)
    • Maasai (Kenya & Tanzania)
    • Kanuri ( Nigeria)
    • Songhay (Mali)
    • Kadu group:
      • Western: Tulishi, Keiga, Kanga
      • Central: Miri, Kadugli, Katcha, Tumma
      • Eastern: Ktongo, Tumtum
    • Eastern Sudanic group:
      • Eastern branch - Nubian, Surma, Nara, Eastern Jebel
      • Western branch - Nyimang, Temein, Tama, Daju
      • Nilotic group (Sudanese associated with Nilotic people, esp. cattle herding):
      • Kuliak

Niger-Congo:

  • the largest group of Africa (and probably of the world) in terms of different languages and the main group of indigenous language in SubSaharan Africa.
  • one of its salient features, still shared by most of the Niger-Congo languages, is the noun class system. The vast majority of languages of this family is tonal.
  • Niger Congo A group - mainly central-eastern coastal region of Africa
    • Kordafanian group - mainly southern Sudan
    • Mande - west Africa - includes Bambara (main language of Mali) and Soninke (spoken in Mali, Senegal, Mauritania)
    • Atlantic - includes Wolof
    • Ijoid in Nigeria
    • Dogon in Mali
    • Seufo in Ivory Coast & Mali
    • Gur including Dagbani in Northern Ghana
    • Adamawa-Ubangi includes Sango in Central Afrikan Republic
    • Kru in West Africa
    • Kwa including Akan in Ghana & the Gbe languages 
  • Niger Congo B (Bantu) - most of southern half of Africa
    • Swahili

Khoi-San:

  • number about 50 languages and spoken by about 120 000 people. They are found mainly in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola.

Creole:

 

history/h_lang1.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/06 23:33 by gary1