Nikkon AF lenses:
Nikon D3 sensor tests:
http://www.brisk.org.uk/photog/d3index.html - Peter Facey
http://astrosurf.com/buil/nikon_test/test.htm - Christian Buil
on the net:
Which Nikon dSLR to buy?
best value for money high end dSLR is the Nikon D700 which has nearly all the features of the bigger, heavier, more expensive Nikon D3.
the Nikon D300 is a nice 2nd body to mate with the D700 as it shares the same optional battery holder but allows more telephoto reach from your full frame lenses due to its 1.5x crop factor - probably not worth buying DX lenses now that the full frame cameras are coming down in price, and if you buy a D300 first, you will probably end up with a full frame body later.
which budget Nikon dSLR?
none of the Nikon budget dSLRs have exciting features that the Olympus E510/E520 have such as live preview, image stabiliser built in the body so it works on any lens, great lens range designed to match the cameras, but they do have marginally better dynamic range and lower noise at high ISO.
the D40 is probably best value for money compared with the D40x or D60, and shares with each of these a major problem - you can't autofocus with some lenses and this means getting a great portrait lens that autofocuses is very expensive with these cameras - something not to be discounted to quickly.
the D80 is probably the best of Nikon's budget dSLRs given that you can buy a cheap 50mm f/1.8 or f/1.4 lens to use as your portrait lens.
Nikon dSLRs and their RAW files:
"noise reduction = OFF" ie. no dark frame subtraction for long exposures but a noise filter is still applied to the RAW file.
not useful for astrophotography as the noise filter removes faint stars too.
"noise reduction = ON" ie. for long exposures a dark frame is also taken and subtracted to reduce thermal noise BUT a noise filter is still applied to the RAW file.
not useful for astrophotography as the noise filter removes faint stars too.
an unofficial hack that shuts the camera down during "Mode 2" dark frame acquisition and prevents the noise filter from being applied to the RAW file.
"Mode 3 controllers" are 3rd party devices designed to shut the camera down during dark frame acquisition by lowering the available voltage from the battery. The voltage required to trigger mode3, is actually not below the usable level, but just above it, and as a safety feature, Nikon has programmed the camera to abort internal JOBNR dark frames and save the data to the memory card, to prevent data loss when it senses the voltage approaching the unusable level.
History of Nikon DX digital SLRs:
the DX sensor has a crop factor of 1.5x compared to 35mm
D1 - 2.6mp 4.5fps x 21jpgs
AF-S G type lenses without aperture rings introduced
D1H - 2.6mp 5fps x 40jpgs
D1x - 5mp 3fps x 9jpgs
D100 - 6mp 3fps x 6jpgs
D2H - 4mp 8fps
D2x - 12mp 5fps (8fps at 6.8mp crop)
D2Hs - 4mp 8fps
D70S - 6mp
D50 - 6mp 2.5fps x12jpegs
D200 - 10mpixel weather-sealed
D2Xs - 12mp 5fps (8fps at 6.8mp crop)
D80 - 10mp 3fps x 23jpegs
D3 - Nikon's 1st full frame FX format dSLR:
AF-S DX 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR:
27-158mm with 3 stop VR II image stabiliser;
rounded 7 blade diaphragm; SWM AF; 67mm filter; 450g;
24mp full frame pro body but very expensive
upgrade to 70-200mm f/2.8 VR (version II)
upgrade to AF-S DX 18-200mm VR II lens
12mp 9fps full frame pro body with ISO to 102400 and 720 24p mjeg movies
AF-S 300mm f/2.8G ED VR II
2.9kg; 4 stop IS; new A/M focus mode; nano coating; 52mm filter; RRP $US5899
AF-S Teleconverter TC-20E III aspherical
sharp lens, although soft in the corners and generally softer at 35mm, and severe barrel distortion at 16mm
introduced 2010; VR II level of image stabilisation; 77mm filter; weather sealed; 685g;
even larger than Canon, Sony f/2.8 zooms!!
a better landscape lens than the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8 as lighter and can use filters, but does suffer from flare into the sun.
AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED - weather sealed, 77mm filter
AF-S 85mm f/1.4 G:
595g; 9 blades; 77mm filter; Nano Crystal coat; weathersealing; new optical design; £1499.99 / €1549
this could be one of those lenses, along with the 14-24mm f/2.8G which might persuade a pro to buy Nikon
AF-S 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED VR:
10x zoom with VRII for full frame; 800g; 9 blades; 2 ED and 3 asph. elements; 77mm filter; RRP £869.99 / €899.
AF-S 55-300mm f/4.5-5.6 G ED VR:
5x consumer zoom with VRII for full frame; 530g; 9 blades; 2 ED and 3 asph. elements; 58mm filter; £369.99 / €379
AF-S 24-120mm f/4 G ED VR:
5x zoom with VRII for full frame; 710g; 9 blades; 2 ED and 3 asph. elements; 77mm filter; £1049.99 / €1099
some weather sealing; Nano Crystal coating;
Nikon D3100 dSLR:
14mp; entry level dSLR with 1080i 24fps AVCHD video with C-AF but mono audio only; and Live View; 11pt AF;
16mp upgrade from the D90; 39 AF pts (9 cross-type); 6fps; 1080i 24fps; 720p 30fps; mono sound;
History of Nikon SLR lenses:
history of Nikon lenses:
newer Nikon lenses usually always work with older Nikon cameras, but newer cameras don't always work with older lenses.
PC Nikkor 28mm f/4 with serial numbers of 180900 or earlier must not be used with Nikon dSLRs as they may cause damage.
Up through the 1970s Nikon only made very expensive professional lenses. Normal people had to buy discount brands lenses if they wanted something they could afford. They introduced consumer-oriented Series E AI-s lenses which had good optics but contained some plastic and were looked down on by the pros despite being well built and retained Nikon's superior 7-bladed diaphragm.
manual focus lenses:
F series ("pre-AI" or "non-AI"):
introduced in 1959 for the Nikon F camera and ended in 1977
These lenses today can mount just fine on today's cameras if you first have them converted to AI by a machine shop, although you won't get matrix metering on the FA or F4 or AF cameras.
AI ("automatic indexing"):
introduced in 1977 to replace the F series.
For once you could mount lenses with one twist, and NOT have to twiddle the aperture ring separately each time.
AI lenses can be bought very cheap, and they are far better made mechanically than many of even the "professional" AF lenses of today.
These manual focus lenses only give give center weighted and spot metering in manual and A modes on most AF cameras, matrix metering is only available on the F4 and FA with these lenses.
an incremental advance introduced in 1983 and functionally is much the same as AI unless you have a Fa or F4.
All AI-s lenses fit on every Nikon SLR camera, including AF cameras.
All AF, AF-I and AF-S lenses are also AI-s
includes the new Carl Zeiss ZF full frame lenses introduced in late 2006:
Distagon T* 25mm f/2.8 $US824 very sharp, macro to 50mm.
Distagon T* 35mm f/2 $US824
Planar T* 50mm f/1.4 ~$US650?
Planar T* 85mm f/1.4 ~$US1300?
the fastest full frame macro lenses available:
Makro Planar T* 50mm f/2 $US1124
Makro Planar T* 100mm f/2 $US1749
manual focus AI-s lenses with the electronic contacts of an AF lens to allow matrix metering on these AF cameras
11 AF lenses introduced in 1985-6, but widest angle was 24mm & longest telephoto was 300mm .
These AF Nikkor lenses had no meter coupling shoe on the aperture ring. This means they cannot be used conveniently on a Nikon SLR camera that is not AI coupled.
AF Nikkor lenses retained the basic essential principle of the AI-S (standardised aperture stop down action) so when used with a non-AF camera they act as any AI-S lens. You'll need to install a meter coupling prong for use on pre-AI cameras.
the first ultra wide Nikkor that went AF was an AF 20mm f/2.8, first introduced in 1998.
these early AF lenses had hard, thin MF rings which everyone hated.
later version of AF which had proper MF rings introduced in the late 1980s
These lenses supposedly let the camera know the distance at which the lens has focused.
All AF-D lenses are AF and AI-s, and work great on manual focus cameras. You'll need to have a coupling prong added for use with the meter on ancient pre-AI cameras.
introduced in the early 1990's and mainly only used for super telephotos but not all Nikon AF cameras can autofocus with these lenses.
These add an internal motor to focus the lens. There is no mechanical AF connection between camera and lens, it's done electronically.
These lenses have magical motors (Silent Wave Motor or SWM) built into them to focus. The main advantage is not speed, but that you can just grab the focus ring and turn it even in the AF mode to get instant manual focusing, without having to mess with any switches. Nikon has finally caught up with Canon AF technology.
All AF-S D lenses are AF-D, and thus they are AI-s compatible (EXCEPT for G series or DX lenses) for complete compatibility with manual focus cameras. In this case, the S in AF-S has nothing to do with the s in AI-s. They fit all Nikon SLR cameras, and give all features with all manual focus cameras. You may need to have a coupling prong installed for metering on pre-AI cameras.
For an AF camera to control the aperture on any non-G lens with an aperture ring you just turn the aperture ring to the minimum setting in orange (usually f/22) and flick the lock so it stays there, and then everything is done on the camera body.
introduced in 2000
aperture ring removed from a D-type lens so need a camera with command dial to control aperture (although some cameras such as N90s can be used in Program or Shutter Priority mode)
This means that they will not work on manual focus cameras since there is no way to set the aperture. You can put them on, just that every shot will be made at the smallest aperture and your metering will be way off (probably about SIX stops underexposed) since the camera has no way to know what the aperture will be.
new lenses for 2008:
AF-S 14-24mm f/2.8G ED
AF-S 24-70mm f/2.8G ED
AF-S 400mm f/2.8 ED VR
AF-S 500mm f/4G ED VR
AF-S 600mm f/4G ED VR
current additional designations:
Defocus Control lens to allow photographer to control degree of spherical aberration in out-of-focus areas for better bokeh.
designed for the 1.5x crop factor of Nikon DX digital SLRs and their image circle will not cover a full frame 35mm camera.
Extra Dispersion type glass elements used
Internal Focussing - thus lens size does not change with changing focus but true focal length may be altered, especially at close up focus.
Rear Focussing - similar to IF but rear element moves
Perspective Control lens to allow shift &/or tilt; see perspective control
Vibration Reduction - see image stabiliser
Carl Zeiss lenses for Nikon digital:
manual focus lenses with no inbuilt electronics
improved over Zeiss Contax RTS lenses by:
better stray light suppression (flare control)
improved aperture geometry for better bokeh
ZF-I series for industrial use:
weatherproofed & dust proofed, silver
Distagon T* 2.8/25mm
Distagon T* 2/28mm
Distagon T* 2/35mm
History of Nikon film cameras: